Working academic and industry research professional with relevant sales, training and management skills, continually employed in the printing industry since 1985. Holds a Ph.D. in Graphic Communications from New York University. Worked in various sales, technical, training and management positions at Agfa and X-Rite, Inc. prior to joining Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). Highlights of work experience include serving as Global Sales Training Manager for X-Rite, Inc. with extensive travel to Asia to train Far Eastern sales force in color measurement and management as well as working together with brand owners and consumer packaging companies to develop and implement corporate brand color control initiatives, and working as Field Technical Manager at Agfa. Adjunct professor at New York University since 1998, former resident professor at Kean University, and present resident Assistant Professor in the School of Media Sciences at RIT.
Areas of expertise include:
Corporate Brand Color Management
Sales and Technical Training and Applications
ICC Profile-Based Color Management
Digital Imaging, Industry Standards and Specifications
Colorimetric Variables Utilized by U.S. Ink Companies
Colorimetry is widely adopted in the printing industry, but the user-selected variables inherent in
using the technologies are not widely standardized. In the present study, the current state of the
adoption of particular colorimetric variables is examined in U.S. ink companies. A quantitative,
cross-sectional survey was distributed to ink companies inquiring about their selection of
instrument geometry, colorimetric illuminant, standard observer and color differencing method
as part of their standard operating procedures. In addition, companies were asked about their
choice for quality assurance software and preferred digital file format for color communication.
Metrology for 3D Printing: Assessing Methods for the Evaluation of 3D Printing Products
According to Blum & Smithers-PIRA (2105), the collective industry which professional three-dimensional (3D) printing and printed electronics is projected to be $67.4 billion in 2015, double from the 2010 value, and thus it is expected to grow to nearly $108 billion by 2020. As 3D printing technologies are frequently used to manufacture interchangeable parts and for applications such as rapid prototyping, it is little surprise that a growing body of research has examined the accuracy of these devices (e.g. Ostrout, 2015). It is customary for these studies to utilize digital microscopes together with appropriate imaging software to analyze and quantify the unique nature of 3D printed samples. It is recognized that such microscopes are generally rather costly, and are not especially intuitive to use. An alternative to digital microscopes would therefore be welcome, such a solution would need to be capable of measuring not only length and width (x and y directions), but also in height (z direction).
An Analysis of M0 and M1 Measurement Conditions
The increased use of optical brightening agents (OBAs) in substrates for printing is well documented, as are the complications surrounding spectrophotometric color measurement when OBAs are present. In an effort to better address measurement of OBAs, the International Standards Organization (ISO) has published ISO 13566:2009, where the illuminations utilized in spectrophotometric instrumentation is more clearly defined than in previous standards. It is recognized that moving ahead the illuminant utilized in spectrophotometers should be able to better correlate to standardized viewing conditions, including the amount of ultra-violet (UV) present in the illuminant, as the effect of the OBAs is dependent on the amount of UV.
Matching Printed Color Images under the Influence of OBA Using a Soft Proofing System
Soft proofing is a solution for print buyers and printers who want to decrease production cost and cycle time. When print buyers are increasingly specifying brightened papers, the use of the standard printer ICC profile, e.g., SWOP 3 and GRACoL 2006, as the source color space in the ICC-based color proofing workflow, no longer suffice. This is because the proof looks yellowish in comparison to the brightened print with a bluish white point that print buyers desire. To overcome the mismatch between the soft proof and the brightened print, this research builds a number of source ICC profiles, including profiles built using the substrate-corrected colorimetric aims (SCCA), and profiles built using full dataset. By conducting psychometric tests in a soft proofing environment, the results indicate that (1) the soft proof to brightened print match depends on the source ICC profile; (2) source ICC profiles, built from a fully characterized dataset or the substrate-corrected dataset, improve color match between the soft proof and the brightened print; and (3) the degree of color match between the soft proof and the print is image-dependent.
An Investigation of Factors Influencing Color Tolerances
Tolerance is the permissible difference between sample measurement and the aim and is used to determine the acceptability of a product. A well-known example is the color tolerance of printed solids in ISO 12647-2. The first edition of ISO 12647-2 was published in 1996. It has gone through two major revisions. In the 2004 revision, the magnitude of the color tolerance (LE*ab) was changed. In the 2013 revision, a new color tolerance metric (LE00) was included. No justification was found regarding the ISO 12647-2 revisions. In this research, %Pass is used to study the effect of color tolerance in a database. Recognizing that tolerance is a man-made decision, if the tolerance is too tight, the %Pass will be low; and vice versa. This research also examines the use of the equal %Pass to determine the tolerance equivalency between the old (LE*ab) and the new (LE00) parameter. The results show that there is no convergence between LE*ab and LE00 when using the boundary data approach. However, there is an equivalent tolerance between LE*ab and LE00 using the equal %Pass approach. The current ISO 12647-2 standard, using 3.5 LE00 for CMY and 5 LE00 for black, resulted in unequal %Pass. By using the equal %Pass approach, the black solid tolerance does not need to be different than cyan and magenta solids, but the yellow solid tolerance can be smaller than cyan and magenta solids.
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